What are the most common methods of male and female surgical sterilization?

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The most common methods of male surgical sterilization are:

  1. Vasectomy: Both vasa deferentia are cut within the scrotum, and the loose ends are tied off. This method is 99% effective.
  2. Castration: Removal of testes

The most common methods of female surgical sterilization are:

  1. Tubectomy: It is tube ligation done in females. The fallopian tubes (oviducts) are cut and tied off. This method is 99% effective.
  2. Hysterectomy: Removal of uterus
  3. Oophorectomy: Removal of ovaries
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