What are the differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?


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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PROKARYOTIC CELLS AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS

Features

Prokaryotic cell

Eukaryotic cell

Size

Mostly 1-10 µm

Mostly 10-100 µm

Cell wall

Present in most but not all

Present in plant and fungal cells

Plasma membrane

Present

Present

Nuclear membrane

Absent

Present

Nucleus

Absent

Present

Chromatin with histone proteins

Absent

Present

Genetic material

Linear or circular double stranded(ds) DNA

Linear double stranded(ds) DNA with introns

Mitotic Apparatus

Absent

Present

Mitochondria

Absent

Present

Chloroplast

Absent

Present(only in plants)

Ribosomes

Present

70S type

Present

80S type

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Absent

Present

Lysosomes

Absent

Present

Vacuoles

Absent

Present

Centrioles

Absent

Present(absent in higher plants)

Microtubules

Absent

Present

Flagella

Simple in structure.

Composed of protein Flagellin

Complex in structure.

9 + 2 arrangement

Made up of protein Tubulin

Respiration

Many strict anaerobes

All are aerobic, but some facultative anaerobes

Sexual systems

Rare

Both male and females and involved.

Alternation of haploid and diploid generations is clearly visible.

 

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