in Microbes in Human Welfare by

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Bread is produced by fermentation using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During the bread formation, fermentation of hexoses to carbon dioxide and ethanol takes place. The ethanol produced either gets evaporated or forms esters. The carbon dioxide gets entrapped in the dough resulting in its expansion. The expansion and stretching of the dough is due to the unique elastic protein called gluten which is responsible for the spongy texture of bread.