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Primary Functions:

  1. Absorption: The cluster of root hair present behind the root apex, helps the plant in absorption of minerals, salts and water from the soil.
  2. Anchorage: The root anchors the plant firmly into the soil and provides mechanical support to the aerial shoot system.
  3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and mineral salts upwards to the stem and leaves.

Secondary Functions:

  1. Storage: Roots store certain amount of food material in its mature region which it utilizes during growth.
  2. Moisture absorption:  Hygroscopic roots found in epiphytic plants absorb moisture directly from the air. E.g. Vanda
  3. Assimilation: Certain plants produce slender, long, green coloured assimilatory tissue which manufactures food by photosynthesis. E.g. Tinospora, Trapa
  4. Vegetative propagation: Roots of certain plants help in vegetative propagation. E.g. Sweet potato, carrot etc.
  5. Respiration: Pneumatophores are aerial roots found in mangrove plants. They contain small pores called lenticels for gaseous exchange. They are also called breathing roots. E.g. Rhizophora, Sonneratia, Avicennia
  6. Mycorrhizal association: Roots of many plants form symbiotic association with fungal hyphae, which helps the plant by enhancing its mineral uptake. E.g. Cyperus, Pinus