in Cell Structure and Function by

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  1. Mitochondria are the main sites of cell respiration.
  2. They bring about complete oxidation of food stuffs or respiratory substrates in to carbon dioxide and water.
  3. The energy liberated in this process is initially stored in the form of reduced coenzymes and prosthetic groups.
  4. Mitochondria provide important intermediates for the synthesis of several biochemical’s like chlorophyll, cytochromes, pyrimidines, steroids, alkaloids etc.,
  5. The matrix or inner chamber of the mitochondria has enzymes for the synthesis of fatty acids.
  6. Synthesis of many amino acids occurs in the mitochondria.
  7. The first formed amino acids are glutamic acid and aspartic acids. They are synthesized from alpha-ketoglutaric acid and oxaloacetic acid respectively.
  8. Mitochondria regulate the calcium ion concentration in the cell by storing and releasing calcium as needed.
  9. The calcium ions in turn, regulate many biochemical activities in the cell.
  10. Mitochondria synthesize some of their own structural proteins.


  1. Chloroplasts are the centers of photosynthesis or formation of organic compounds from inorganic raw materials.
  2. Chloroplasts are able to trap sun energy and change it in to chemical energy which is used by all living organisms to perform their life activities.
  3. Chloroplasts pick up carbon dioxide and use the same in photosynthesis thus, keeps the percentage of this gas balanced in the atmospheres.
  4. It liberates oxygen which is passed in to the atmosphere which keeps the balance constant in the atmosphere.
  5. They store starch either temporarily or permanently.
  6. Chloroplasts of some algae provide photosensitivity because of the presence of stigma or eye spot.
  7. The reducing power produced during light reaction (NADPH) is used in the reduction of nitrate and synthesis of amino acids.
  8. Chloroplasts store fat in the form of plastoglobuli.
  9. They can be changed in to the chromoplasts to provide colour to many flowers and fruits for attracting animals.