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1. The ascending portion of the main axis of the plant is called stem.

2. It is positively phototropic and negatively geotropic.

3. Well-developed nodes and internodes are present on the stem.

4. A terminal bud is present at the apex.

5. Flowers and fruits are borne on the stem.

6. The stem has lateral branches which are exogenous in origin, i.e. they arise from the tissues which are present towards the periphery of the main axis (cortex).