Describe the structure of thiamine.

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As a coenzyme, Thiamine exists as Thiamine Pyrophosphate (TPP).

  1. It contains a pyrimidine ring and a thiazole ring (only natural compound containing thiazole ring) held by a methylene bridge.
  2. Thiazole ring is also a functional part of TPP. Its hydrogen of C-atom 2 is relatively acidic because of the adjacent positively charged Quaternary N-atom, which electrostatically stabilize the carbanion formed on dissociation of the proton.
  3. This dipolar carbanion is active form of the coenzyme.
  4. To thiazole ring, pyrophosphate is also attached (which is donated by ATP).